Despite remarkable progress in reducing child deaths over the past 15 years, more than six million children under the age of five continue to die each year. Nearly one third of these deaths are attributable to just three causes: pneumonia, diarrhea, and malaria. Pneumonia control is critical to reducing child mortality and achieving Sustainable Development Goal 3 globally. Nearly one million of deaths are caused by pneumonia, which is the leading infectious cause of death for children under 5, accounting for 39% of all deaths related to infectious causes. Further, 99% of these deaths from pneumonia occur in low- and middle-income countries. In order to reduce child mortality, controlling pneumonia will be a critical component to any integrated child health strategy.
Pneumonia control is equally as critical to enable Nigeria to achieve its child health goals. Pneumonia is the leading killer of Nigerian children under five, accounting for approximately 18% of all under-five mortality and resulting in approximately 57,500 to 127,500 deaths annually. In order to achieve SDG 3.2, Nigeria needs to prevent the deaths of approximately 70,000 additional children by 2030, and improving pneumonia outcomes as part of Nigeria’s broader child health strategy is critical to do so.
Caregivers play an important role in identifying and effectively responding to cases of Penumonia in their children. Recognising that caregivers are primarily women, we seek to identify to what extent gender inequality impacts on women’s ability to make informed decisions and have access to, and control over resources, for the benefit of themselves and their children’s health.
Many of the tools to protect, prevent, diagnose and treat pneumonia exist; but, doing so requires greater attention to scaling these tools and the use of a gender-sensitive integrated child health, multi-sectoral approach.
SCOPE OF WORK
The proposed assignment will focus on planning and conducting a gender-sensitive situational analysis of pneumonia among under 5 children in Lagos and Jigawa states, focusing on following objectives:
- Conducting an in-depth assessment of barriers to pneumonia control looking across:
- The full spectrum of protecting, preventing, diagnosing and treating pneumonia,
- Multiple sectors, including nutrition, household air pollution, immunization, diagnostics and treatment sectors.
This assessment will be done in the context of Nigeria’s broader newborn and child health strategy in order to ensure there is alignment in terms of the barriers explored as well as the potential opportunities identified.
- Interview key stakeholders in the market at federal and state level, including: government actors; programmatic implementing partners; private sector manufacturers and supply chain actors, and other global actors that have been involved in ongoing efforts (e.g., Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, UNICEF, WHO, GSK).
- Understand the current newborn and child health priorities in the country and project states and how best to integrate pneumonia sufficiently into these priorities.
- Understand how gender inequality impacts on pneumonia prevention, control and treatment and how best women – in their role as primary caregiver – can be empowered for the benefit of their children’s health.
KEY ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS
- What impact does gender inequality have on pneumonia prevention, control and treatment in Nigeria?
- What is the current state of newborn and child health interventions in Nigeria and the project states? (e.g., how has uptake been? Who are the key players?)
- What is the current state of pneumonia prevention, control and treatment in Nigeria and project states? (e.g., what efforts are underway? Who are the key players?)
- What are the biggest barriers in terms of market and user demand; manufacturing and distribution, including sourcing and/or local production; clinical evidence and regulatory approval; policy, advocacy and financing; coordination; other factors? What are the best strategies and activities to overcome these barriers?
- What are the opportunities for private sector involvement and investment to support pneumonia prevention, control and treatment in the project states?
- What are the opportunities for stakeholders and partners to support pneumonia prevention, control and treatment in the project states?
- What are the strategic priorities for the project states?
What are potential risks associated with these priorities and their activities, and how can they be mitigated?
Gender-sensitive situational assessment report and strategic priorities for pneumonia project, which includes protection, prevention, diagnosis and treatment, and identifying multi-sectoral priorities that align well with broader newborn and child health priorities in the project states and the country
- August: Desk review and data collection both at national, Lagos and Jigawa states.
- September 5: Submission of the first draft of the report for feedback
- September 10: Feedback on first draft provided back to the consultant
- September15: Final report submitted
ESTIMATE OF WORK DAYS INVOLVED (8 hours per work day):
- Review and analysis of literature and documents, federal and state level consultations: 20 days
- Data analysis and report writing (first and final drafts): 12 days
- Feedback incorporation: 3 days
- Stakeholder dissemination: 1 day
- Prepare final report : 1 day
Total estimate: 37 days
REQUIRED SKILL AND EXPERIENCE
- Having experience in research on the issues of pneumonia or child health, communications, public health or related (both in the southern and northern Nigeria).
- Experience establishing and fostering partnerships with key development partners including UN agencies, donors, government and other NGOs.
- Experience gathering and analyzing the views of diverse stakeholders including government officials, donors, NGOs, health care providers, and childcare givers.
- Strong research skills, with excellent attention to detail, able to synthesize, organize, and present information.
- Excellent English writing, communication and public presentation skills, preferably in child health policy, advocacy and research issues
- Computer literacy in word processing, publication, graphics, and spreadsheet software packages.
- Self-motivated and highly flexible individual who can manage multiple tasks and priorities. Must have strong critical thinking, diplomacy, and negotiation skills.
INTERVIEWS AND REFERENCES:
- Federal and State government actors (e.g., FMoH, SMOH, NPHCDA, SPHCDA, National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control, National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives , NAPPMED, among others)
- Development partners (e.g., USAID, UNICEF, Save the Children, CHAI, JSI, PATH, Jhpiego)
- Civil society organisations, including women’s rights organisations
- Private sector manufacturers and supply chain actors (e.g., both global and local manufacturers, private sector pharmacies); and other global actors that have been involved in ongoing efforts (e.g., Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, UNICEF, WHO, GSK).